Features and benefits: How we equip our users to unlock the full potential of H-Series Quantum Computers

August 1, 2023

Quantinuum is proud to introduce three new tools to help enterprise and academic users to make full use of the world-leading capabilities of the System Model H1 and H2 quantum computers. 

In a series of recent technical papers, Quantinuum researchers demonstrated the world-leading capabilities of the latest H-Series quantum computers, and the features and tools that make these accessible to our global customers and users.

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Our teams used the H-Series quantum computers to directly measure and control non-abelian topological states of matter [1] for the first time, explore new ways to solve combinatorial optimization problems more efficiently [2], simulate molecular systems using logical qubits with error detection [3], probe critical states of matter [4], as well as exhaustively benchmark our very latest system [5].

Part of what makes such rapid technical and scientific progress possible is the effort our teams continually make to develop and improve workflow tools, helping our users to achieve successful results. In this blog post, we will explore the capabilities of three new tools in some detail, discuss their significance, and highlight their impact in recent quantum computing research.

Leakage Detection Gadget in pyTKET

“Leakage” is a quantum error process where a qubit ends up in a state outside the computational subspace and can significantly impact quantum computations. To address this issue, Quantinuum has developed a leakage detection gadget in pyTKET, a python module for interfacing with TKET, our quantum computing toolkit and optimizing compiler. This gadget, presented at the 2022 IEEE International Conference [6], acts as an error detection technique: it detects and excludes results affected by leakage, minimizing its impact on computations. It is also a valuable tool for measuring single-qubit and two-qubit spontaneous emission rates. H-Series users can access this open-source gadget through pyTKET, and an example notebook is available on the pyTKET GitHub repository. 

Mid-Circuit Measurement and Qubit Reuse (MCMR) Package

The MCMR package, built as a pyTKET compiler pass, is designed to reduce the number of qubits required for executing many types of quantum algorithms, expanding the scope of what is possible on the current-generation H-Series quantum computers. 

As an example, in a recent paper [4], Quantinuum researchers applied this tool to simulate the transverse-field Ising model and used only 20 qubits to simulate a much larger 128 site system (there is more detail below on this work). By measuring qubits early in the circuit, resetting them, and reusing them elsewhere, the package ingests a raw circuit and outputs an optimized circuit that requires fewer quantum resources. Previously, a scientific paper [7] and blog post on MCMR were published highlighting its benefits and applications. H-Series customers can download this package via the Quantinuum user portal.

Quantinuum H2-1 Emulator Release

To enable efficient use of Quantinuum’s 2nd generation processor, the System Model H2, Quantinuum has released the H2-1 emulator to give users greater flexibility with noise-informed state vector emulation. This emulator uses the NVIDIA's cuQuantum SDK to accelerate quantum computing simulation workflows, nearly approaching the limit of full state emulation on conventional classical hardware. The emulator is a faithful representation of the QPU it emulates. This is accomplished by not only using realistic noise models and noise parameters, but also by sharing the same software stack between the QPU and the emulator up until the job is either routed to the QPU or the classical computing processors. Most notable is that the emulator and the QPU use the same compiler allowing subtle and time-dependent errors to be appropriately represented. The H2-1 emulator was initially released as a beta product alongside the System Model H2 quantum computer at launch. It runs on a GPU backend and an upgraded global framework now offering features such as job chunking, incremental resource distribution, mid-execution job cancellation, and partial result return. Detailed information about the emulator can be found in the H2 emulator product datasheet on the Quantinuum website. H-Series customers with an H2 subscription can access the H2-1 emulator via an API or the Microsoft Azure platform.

Enabling Recent Works

Quantinuum's new enabling tools have already demonstrated their efficacy and value in recent quantum computing research, playing a vital role in advancing the field and achieving groundbreaking results. Let's expand on some notable recent examples.

All works presented here benefited from having access to our H-Series emulators; of these two significant demonstrations were the “Creation of Non-Abelian Topological Order and Anyons on a Trapped-Ion Processor” [1] and “Demonstration of improved 1-layer QAOA with Instantaneous Quantum Polynomial” [2]. These demonstrations involved extensive testing, debugging, and experiment design, for which the versatility of the H2-1 emulator proved invaluable, providing initial performance benchmarks in a realistic noisy environment. Researchers relied on the emulator's results to gauge algorithmic performance and make necessary adjustments. By leveraging the emulator's capabilities, researchers were able to accelerate their progress.

The MCMR package was extensively used in benchmarking the System Model H2 quantum computer’s world-leading capabilities [5]. Two application-level benchmarks performed in this work, approximating the solution to a MaxCut combinatorics problem using the quantum approximate optimization algorithm (QAOA) and accurately simulating a quantum dynamics model using a holographic quantum dynamics (HoloQUADS) algorithm, would have been too large to encode on H2's 32 qubits without the MCMR package. Further illustrating the overall value of these tools, in the HoloQUADS benchmark, there is a "bond qubit" that is particularly susceptible to errors due to leakage. The leakage detection gadget was used on this "bond qubit" at the end of the circuit, and any shots with a detected leakage error were discarded. The leakage detection gadget was also used to obtain the rate of leakage error per single-qubit and two-qubit gates, two component-level benchmarks.

In another scientific work [4], the MCMR compilation tool proved instrumental to simulating a transverse-field Ising model on 128 sites, using 20 qubits. With the MCMR package and by leveraging a state-of-the-art classical tensor-network ansatz expressed as a quantum circuit, the Quantinuum team was able to express the highly entangled ground state of the critical Ising model. The team showed that with H1-1's 20 qubits, the properties of this state could be measured on a 128-site system with very high fidelity, enabling a quantitatively accurate extraction of some critical properties of the model.

Key Takeaways

At Quantinuum, we are entirely devoted to producing a quantum hardware, middleware and software stack that leads the world on the most important benchmarks and includes features and tools that provide breakthrough benefit to our growing base of users.  In today's NISQ hardware, "benefit" usually takes the form of getting the most performance out of today’s hardware, continually pushing what is considered to be possible. In this blog we describe two examples: error detection and discard using the “leakage detection gadget” and an automated method for circuit optimization for qubit reuse. “Benefit” can also take other forms, such as productivity. Our emulator brings many benefits to our users, but one that resonates the most is productivity. Being a faithful representation of our QPU performance, the emulator is an accessible tool which users have at their disposal to develop and test new, innovative algorithms. The tools and features Quantinuum releases are driven by users’ feedback; whether you are new to H-Series or a seasoned user, please reach-out and let us know how we can help bring benefit to your research and use case.


[1] Mohsin Iqbal et al., Creation of Non-Abelian Topological Order and Anyons on a Trapped-Ion Processor (2023), arXiv:2305.03766 [quant-ph]

[2] Sebastian Leontica and David Amaro, Exploring the neighborhood of 1-layer QAOA with Instantaneous Quantum Polynomial circuits (2022), arXiv:2210.05526 [quant-ph]

[3] Kentaro Yamamoto, Samuel Duffield, Yuta Kikuchi, and David Muñoz Ramo, Demonstrating Bayesian Quantum Phase Estimation with Quantum Error Detection (2023), arXiv:2306.16608 [quant-ph]

[4] Reza Haghshenas, et al., Probing critical states of matter on a digital quantum computer (2023),
arXiv:2305.01650 [quant-ph]

[5] S. A. Moses, et al., A Race Track Trapped-Ion Quantum Processor (2023), arXiv:2305.03828 [quant-ph]

[6] K. Mayer, Mitigating qubit leakage errors in quantum circuits with gadgets and post-selection, 2022 IEEE International Conference on Quantum Computing and Engineering (QCE), Broomfield, CO, USA, (2022), pp. 809-809, doi: 10.1109/QCE53715.2022.00126.

[7] Matthew DeCross, Eli Chertkov, Megan Kohagen, and Michael Foss-Feig, Qubit-reuse compilation with mid-circuit measurement and reset (2022), arXiv:2210.08039 [quant-ph]

Kaniah Konkoly-Thege

Kaniah is Chief Legal Counsel and SVP of Government Relations for Quantinuum. In her previous role, she served as General Counsel, Honeywell Quantum Solutions. Prior to Honeywell, she was General Counsel, Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, LLC, and Senior Attorney, U.S. Department of Energy. She was Lead Counsel before the Civilian Board of Contract Appeals, the Merit Systems Protection Board, and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Kaniah holds a J.D. from American University, Washington College of Law and B.A., International Relations and Spanish from the College of William and Mary.

Jeff Miller

Jeff Miller is Chief Information Officer for Quantinuum. In his previous role, he served as CIO for Honeywell Quantum Solutions and led a cross-functional team responsible for Information Technology, Cybersecurity, and Physical Security. For Honeywell, Jeff has held numerous management and executive roles in Information Technology, Security, Integrated Supply Chain and Program Management. Jeff holds a B.S., Computer Science, University of Arizona. He is a veteran of the U.S. Navy, attaining the rank of Commander.

Matthew Bohne

Matthew Bohne is the Vice President & Chief Product Security Officer for Honeywell Corporation. He is a passionate cybersecurity leader and executive with a proven track record of building and leading cybersecurity organizations securing energy, industrial, buildings, nuclear, pharmaceutical, and consumer sectors. He is a sought-after expert with deep experience in DevSecOps, critical infrastructure, software engineering, secure SDLC, supply chain security, privacy, and risk management.

Todd Moore

Todd Moore is the Global Vice President of Data Encryption Products at Thales. He is responsible for setting the business line and go to market strategies for an industry leading cybersecurity business. He routinely helps enterprises build solutions for a wide range of complex data security problems and use cases. Todd holds several management and technical degrees from the University of Virginia, Rochester Institute of Technology, Cornell University and Ithaca College. He is active in his community, loves to travel and spends much of his free time supporting his family in pursuing their various passions.

John Davis

Retired U.S. Army Major General John Davis is the Vice President, Public Sector for Palo Alto Networks, where he is responsible for expanding cybersecurity initiatives and global policy for the international public sector and assisting governments around the world to prevent successful cyber breaches. Prior to joining Palo Alto Networks, John served as the Senior Military Advisor for Cyber to the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy and served as the Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Cyber Policy.  Prior to this assignment, he served in multiple leadership positions in special operations, cyber, and information operations.